Latest Linux Code Smashes 14M IOPS Per-Core With Intel Core i9 12900K + Optane

Written by Michael Larabel in Linux Storage on 23 March 2022 at 08:25 AM EDT. 18 Comments
Back in the day, 2.5 million IOPS per core was an impressive feat... That day was little more than one year ago. With faster hardware and relentless optimizations by Linux kernel developers, 14 million IOPS per core is the new record now achieved.

Thanks to the work of Linux block subsystem maintainer Jens Axboe and other upstream kernel developers, over the past year particularly record-after-record benchmarks were being reached when measuring the IOPS per-core potential for further lowering the Linux I/O overhead. The 2~3 million range was impressive a year ago while now it's north of ten million and closing in on fifteen million.

Fast hardware with never-ending Linux performance optimizations mean new records.

Axboe is still using the Intel Core i9 12900K "Alder Lake" with Intel Optane P5800X NVMe storage for his flagship hardware setup. Breaking the 14M IOPS threshold was achieved when he was using the very latest development code, including his "perf-wip" Git branch that carries his various performance optimizations until mainlined along with "a few pending goodies."

The next milestone is aiming for 15M IOPS per-core. While not everyone has this class hardware and this is just benchmarking off the raw block device, ultimately all of these Linux I/O optimizations allow for reducing overhead and yielding more efficient code paths that come to benefit all Linux users.
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Michael Larabel is the principal author of and founded the site in 2004 with a focus on enriching the Linux hardware experience. Michael has written more than 20,000 articles covering the state of Linux hardware support, Linux performance, graphics drivers, and other topics. Michael is also the lead developer of the Phoronix Test Suite, Phoromatic, and automated benchmarking software. He can be followed via Twitter, LinkedIn, or contacted via

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