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A Look At The MDS Cost On Xeon, EPYC & Xeon Total Impact Of Affected CPU Vulnerabilities
In user-space workloads not really interacting with the kernel, those workloads like NAMD are really only impaired for processors where it's recommended to disable Hyper Threading.
For code compilation workloads, the greatest hit as well tends to come from disabling HT but the mitigations on pre-Cascadelake hardware can cause a minor impact as well.
Hackbench as a Linux kernel scheduler benchmark tends to be one of the most impacted workloads by these CPU mitigations where obviously it's not much of a difference for EPYC due to only being affected by Spectre and fortunately the newest Cascadelake processor has the hardware mitigations in place.