AMD+SUSE Tackling Frequency Invariance For AMD EPYC 7002 CPUs
Written by Michael Larabel in AMD on 25 November 2020 at 12:16 PM EST. 2 Comments
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Thanks to work by AMD and SUSE engineers, the Linux kernel could soon be seeing frequency invariance support for EPYC 7002 "Rome" processors for yielding greater performance and power efficiency.

Over the past year we have seen a lot of Linux kernel work for dealing with frequency invariance but to now that on the x86 side has been focused on Intel Xeon processors. Now through the cooperation of AMD with patches led by SUSE, frequency invariance is being worked on for the EPYC 7002 "Rome" processors.

Frequency invariance ultimately is about more accurate load tracking and being able to make better frequency scaling decisions. All the fine details around frequency invariance can be found outlined via the documentation. Fundamentally it's regarding the issue of tasks appearing larger if the CPU is running slower so the frequency invariance takes into account the current frequency relative to the maximum possible frequency (or with the way these AMD patches are implemented, relative to the maximum possible performance state).

With the pending AMD Rome implementation, ACPI is queried for figuring out the maximum boost performance state of the system via the CPPC (Collaborative Processor Performance Control) support that is new to Zen 2 and thus why Zen 1 CPUs are not supported by this code. The CPPC performance value is used as opposed to the boost clock frequency itself for lack of being able to properly determine that on the current AMD processors but in relative terms still works out all the same.

The AMD EPYC frequency invariance patches for the Linux kernel remain under review and discussion on the kernel mailing list.

No performance figures were provided by the developers on these AMD patches, so it will be fun to benchmark it when the time comes. At least on the Intel side the frequency invariance support with Xeon processors has allowed for better performance and efficiency. It will be interesting to see how this AMD frequency invariance support pans out with the Linux Schedutil governor that makes use of scheduler utilization data for making its frequency scaling decisions. The patches also note it will serve as a baseline for comparison should AMD ever get back to working on their previously proposed AMD CPPC CPUFreq driver that hasn't seen any new public activity since the patches were first volleyed back in July 2019 after Zen 2 was first announced with ACPI CPPC support.
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Michael Larabel is the principal author of and founded the site in 2004 with a focus on enriching the Linux hardware experience. Michael has written more than 20,000 articles covering the state of Linux hardware support, Linux performance, graphics drivers, and other topics. Michael is also the lead developer of the Phoronix Test Suite, Phoromatic, and automated benchmarking software. He can be followed via Twitter or contacted via

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