Looking At The Linux Performance Two Years After Spectre / Meltdown Mitigations
Workloads involving I/O like CompileBench are one of the areas most impacted by these various mitigations. In the case of the new Core i9 10980XE processor at least much of the overhead is significantly reduced but not completely eliminated. Besides Cascadelake, the Core i9 9000KS and other select 9 series steppings do also ship with additional protections these days.
Golang continues to see a hit from these mitigations on pre-Cascadelake processors, especially when it comes to HTTP performance.
Java workloads also generally still show a significant difference in performance from these mitigations.