Microsoft Explains More About Their Windows Subsystem For Linux
Deepu Thomas of Microsoft's Windows Kernel Team has written a lengthy article covering the Windows Subsystem for Linux. It covers how the subsystem is implemented, how it differs from a traditional VM approach, introduces the LXSS manager service, how unmodified Linux ELF64 binaries get implemented and the Windows NT kernel handles the Linux system calls, how the file-system interaction is done, and more.
If you are at all interested in the Windows Subsystem for Linux to run unmodified Ubuntu programs on Windows 10, see this MSDN blog post. In case you missed it, checkout the promising early benchmarks of Ubuntu user-space atop Windows.