Microsoft's Windows Subsystem For Linux Exits Beta
The Windows Subsystem for Linux allows running Ubuntu user-space packages including apt-get and the entire user-space from within Windows natively using this new kernel subsystem. Fedora, openSUSE, and other Linux distributions are still coming.
Microsoft confirms they still have no plans to support X/GUI Linux apps under WSL and you still aren't able to access Linux files from Windows, but could be improved upon in time. WSL is also not recommended for running production server workloads.
Those wishing to learn more can see this MSDN blog post. In our tests we've found Windows 10 WSL to offer good performance except for disk I/O and is certainly fun for benchmarking from time to time.