The plug-able validation layers is one of the big design differences compared to OpenGL. Rakos' blog post on the matter covers different error types, preparing code for the validation support, and more.
The post concluded with, "While getting familiar with the Vulkan API may seem a bit involving at the beginning, as due to its nature it has a steeper learning curve than traditional APIs, the validation layers make it much easier to catch any mistakes, and they also provide a lot of additional useful information beyond just reporting basic errors. While using the validation layers does not completely eliminate the need to test your application on multiple platforms, it minimizes the chances of any portability issues resulting from incorrect API usage."
You can read more at GPUOpen.com.