The new file-system present for Linux 4.6 is OrangeFS, a project that's been in development for a long time. The origins of OrangeFS dates back to the 90's. The project is self-described as "an LGPL userspace scale-out parallel storage system. It is ideal for large storage problems faced by HPC, BigData, Streaming Video, Genomics, Bioinformatics. Orangefs, originally called PVFS, was first developed in 1993 by Walt Ligon and Eric Blumer as a parallel file system for Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) as part of a NASA grant to study the I/O patterns of parallel programs."
OrangeFS supports distributing data among multiple file servers, simultaneous access by multiple clients, stores file data and meta-data on servers using local file-systems, the user-space implementation is simple to deploy, direct MPI support, and it's stateless.
OrangeFS will be present in Linux 4.6. Those wishing to learn more about OrangeFS can visit OrangeFS.org.