GLX protocol support was added for the following OpenGL extensions in the NVIDIA 190.xx series: GL_ARB_draw_buffers, GL_EXT_Cg_shader, GL_EXT_gpu_program_parameters, GL_NV_fragment_program, GL_NV_gpu_program4, GL_NV_register_combiners, GL_NV_vertex_program1_1, and GL_NV_vertex_program2. These were not the only OpenGL extensions with GLX support added, but there is quite a few unofficial ones too: GL_ARB_geometry_shader4, GL_ARB_shader_objects, GL_ARB_texture_buffer_object, GL_ARB_vertex_buffer_object, GL_ARB_vertex_shader, GL_EXT_bindable_uniform, GL_EXT_compiled_vertex_array, GL_EXT_geometry_shader4, GL_EXT_gpu_shader4, GL_EXT_texture_buffer_object, GL_NV_geometry_program4, GL_NV_vertex_program, GL_NV_parameter_buffer_object, and GL_NV_vertex_program4.
Introduced in the NVIDIA 180.xx series was VDPAU, which is a wonderful video acceleration API for Linux, and in the 190.xx series it has matured a bit more. VDPAU is frequently tuned by NVIDIA with almost each new release it seems, and this time around there is enhanced support for handling corrupted/invalid H.264 bit-streams, enhanced detection of the GPU's video decode capabilities, and a fix for ghosting/flashing issues when decoding H.264, plus a few other VDPAU related fixes. In the NVIDIA 190.16 Beta are also a number of other fixes outside of the VDPAU realm.
OpenCL support is not mentioned in the change-log for the NVIDIA 190.16 Beta Linux driver, even though NVIDIA has its OpenCL driver ready. The full change-log and download links for this proprietary NVIDIA Linux driver update can be found on the Phoronix Forums.