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The Performance Between GCC Optimization Levels

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  • #16
    Originally posted by mayankleoboy1 View Post
    the GCC4.7 optimisation guide specifically says that using -O3 is not recommended over -O2. And that O3 was faster 'in the past' , but is now not faster than -O2.

    Is it OK to use -O3 to build the linux kernel ?
    Yes, but in Linux's case I doubt it will make for a 'perceivable' difference. Part of it is that the kernel is of course extremely 'low latency' by design, another is that the devs make use of compiler extensions which allows them better control of the generated code, overriding the optimization heuristcs of the compiler. Also things that are computationally intense like hashing algorithms have hand-written assembly versions which obviously can't be optimized by the compiler.

    We are seeing work being done on using LTO (link time optimization) when compiling the kernel which could potentially yield slightly better performance, mainly because code tends to become quite a bit smaller with this optimization which could decrease cache trashing, but also because it allows the compiler to view the entire source code as 'one entity' which likely opens up possibilities in optimizations like code reorganizing/reuse and of course dead code removal.

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    • #17
      There are also kernel-specific LTO things that could be done, as the guy that posted his paper in the kernel LTO topic said.

      His thesis was on LTOing a 2.4 kernel, but it did more than just remove dead code: it moved executed-once code to the .init section, saving runtime RAM for example.

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      • #18
        Originally posted by 4d4c47 View Post
        scriptkernel-x.x.x.sh= BFS + BFQ + CFLAG -march=native -Ofast

        http://sourceforge.net/projects/scriptkernel/files/

        scriptgcc-4.7.2_UBUNTU12_64BITS.sh = script compile source code gcc-4.7.2 automatic then ubuntu 12.04+

        http://sourceforge.net/projects/scri...TS.sh/download


        ...
        -Ofast is the equivalent of -O3 -ffast-math, which is the equivalent of -O3 when compiling software that lacks floating point arithmetic. The kernel doesn't use floating point arithmetic, so there is no point to enabling that flag.

        Note that there might be some rare instances in which it does floating point arithmetic, but the kernel developers are quite adamant about avoiding it. Using it would have performance penalties. Furthermore, if it does use floating point arithmetic in those instances, -ffast-math could be a great way to break that code, possibly causing kernel panics.

        By the way, if you want a faster computer, I suggest using ZFS. I am running Gentoo Linux on a ZFS rootfs on my desktop and it is virtually lag free. ZFS has its own IO elevator, so there is no need for the BFQ. Furthermore, I am using the CFS with the autogroups. I have found no need for BFS.

        https://github.com/ryao/zfs-overlay/...er/zfs-install
        Last edited by ryao; 10-14-2012, 09:32 AM.

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        • #19
          if you use -march=native then the compiler will know things like the cache sizes. this means -O3 can make better decisions about speed/size trade off.
          Code:
          gcc -march=native -E -v - </dev/null 2>&1 | grep cc1
          i remember (but cant find) and article saying that the large and clever caches in modern CPUs make -Os less useful.

          Also with the -Ofast did you check the correctness of the programs. it will do things like turn 'x/100' into 'x*0.01', sometimes this is harmless, but some algorithms are very sensitive to this. ( http://gcc.godbolt.org/ is quite good for seeing what an optimisation will actually do )

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          • #20
            Originally posted by DaemonFC View Post
            When you compile Mozilla software with -O3, you will get much larger binary size, which actually can make it take longer to load, and make the resulting program take up more space in RAM. I think Mozilla recommends -O2, but I've seen where some distributions use -Os, which doesn't make the binaries much smaller, but can hurt Firefox's score on things like Sunspider or Google's V8 benchmark. (-O3 doesn't help it enough to be worth the cost in load times and additional RAM usage)
            Firefox used to use -Os, but when they updated their builds to use modern GCC they also switched to using -O3. They do limit the total amount of code inlining which can be done, though, which keeps the binary size from getting too large. And they turned on pgo as well.

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            • #21
              Thanks for the article.

              +1 to also providing the final binary sizes, would be interesting.

              As for testing with -march=native, of course it should provide better results, but these benchmarks are very interesting also as a baseline for what you get if you are planning to distribute binaries.

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              • #22
                What is used by distributions, e.g. Ubuntu

                What is used by distributions, e.g. Ubuntu?

                Do they differentiate between the different packages?

                I hope this is not a dull question.

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                • #23
                  Originally posted by [Knuckles] View Post
                  Thanks for the article.

                  +1 to also providing the final binary sizes, would be interesting.

                  As for testing with -march=native, of course it should provide better results, but these benchmarks are very interesting also as a baseline for what you get if you are planning to distribute binaries.
                  That is why I suggested that these tests should have been both with and without -march=native.

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                  • #24
                    Originally posted by bobwya View Post
                    I doubt a combination of carefully written C and handcrafted assembler is going to benefit very much from additional pseudo-smart Compiler heuristics...

                    Bob
                    The idea that there is some universally correct hand-crafted C or assembler is just ridiculous today. Even different families of Intel's own CPUs need very different optimization strategies in order to maximize performance on that particular CPU. Then take into account the fact that Linux runs on dozens of different CPU architectures. Then remember that Linux is millions of lines of code and human beings are not capable of seeing or thinking about more than a tiny localized fraction of a large codebase at any given moment in time.

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